第一个投入应用的比特币2.0平台是彩色币。彩色币就是你指定比特币里的一小块，说：“这一小块比特币，是1美元（或者1盎司黄金）。我说它是，它就是。我也会一直支付1美元来购回它。”只要大家相信你，你就可以这么发行彩色币。他们最近发布了第一版的chromawallet（透明钱包），其开发者希望在未来的几周内能发布一个更加简便的版本。我们能用这个钱包做什么呢？举个例子，假如你有几斤黄金在家里，你可以假设亿万分之1（satoshis）的比特币等于1克黄金，并且标价到谷歌钱包上。这将意味着你可以将这些黄金兑换成比特币、美元、欧元或者其他使用货币。另一个更加激动人心的例子是，在比特币链上创建公司股票。在这种情况下，你可以拿1000 satoshis或者不论多少你愿意投入在你的公司中，并称1000 satoshis像当于一股你信公司的股票。彩色币项目是一个非常有趣的入门级项目，这些项目都建立在比特币背后的机制上，并且有望在未来几年成真。
Mastercoins是一个与彩色币相似的项目，但是他们更希望用另一种方式达到其目标。该项目于2013年8月成立，以此来促进的许多预期将包含在彩色币项目的功能。被创建的第一个Mastercoins是当期资助者将自己的比特币传给一个特定的比特币地址后发生的。他们的比特币已基本转换为Mastercoins并送回给他们。 Mastercoin是建立在比特币之上的新的机制，因此Mastercoins基本上只是少量的具有一定特色的比特币。一些由Mastercoin正在开发的令人兴奋的功能还包括一个自由的博彩交易所，用差价合约创建无需依靠第三方物理后备货币。需要指出的有关Mastercoin协议的一件事是在该层面上的Mastercoins也有从比特币身上分散的价值。这意味着，Mastercoin也是一个alt硬币。也有一些被添加到Mastercoin协议的一些有趣的功能，如在付款时在储蓄账户标记某些Mastercoins，如果他们是在没有地址持有人的许可的能力。Mastercoin唯一真正的问题是，它是将要使用比特币的竞争。虽然经常说Mastercoin和比特币不是直接的竞争对手，但现实是，如果他们要能使用Mastercoin协议的许多功能，用户将不得不将一些他们的比特币给Mastercoins。如果许多在Mastercoin上实现的功能也对比特币直接执行，那么人们真的不需要执行比特币Mastercoins切换。因为比特币的价格可能更加坚挺，Mastercoins紧跟比特币的情况是利大于弊的。比特币的全部价值，目前徘徊10美元左右十亿，而所有的Mastercoins的价值已经低于1亿美元。当涉及到货币的生存能力时，流动性是一个巨大的因素。所以Mastercoin的高级功能是否能允许它于比特币的流动性优势竞争是有趣的。无论哪种方式，世界很可能会从目前正在在Mastercoin中实现的高级功能中获益。 Mastercoin ，很像比特币，是一种较难理解的技术。好消息是，有一些在YouTube上的影片，其中Mastercoin执行总监罗恩·格罗斯解释说大部分来自过去几个月的各种采访和介绍了协议的重要特征。
开放交易系统在比特币成为一个引人注目的东西之前就已经开始发展了。该项目的首席开发者Chris Odom（别名Fellow Traveler），最初想到这个项目是基于脑海中以黄金作为担保的数字货币。开放交易系统的其中一个主要目标就是用允许任何人发行货币和各种金融资产的方式来分散整个金融环境，同时用密码学保护自己的安全环境。任何人都可以创造一个密码符号来代表开放交易系统的真正价值，但是这个系统的最大创新特征还是人们发行数字符号将不能改变他们的货币或股票分类。例如说，PayPal（贝宝）只要想的话，就可以进入他们的服务器并从你账户平台上将11873.33美金更改到4902.34美金。但是这样的行为是不可能在开放交易系统发生的，因为开放交易系统里的每一笔交易都看得见摸得着。当然，现在还有一个问题就是我们必须相信以金、银、美元，或任何其他资产为基础的第三方集权。现在好消息就是这个问题的解决方法已经被找到了。除了发行货币，一个发行者同样可以用比特币来做储存担保。比如说，假如现在有一种货币价值一盎司黄金，然后这个发行者就可以在第三方保管账户里支付与一盎司黄金相同价值的比特币来购回它。关于开放交易系统的更多信息内容，我会在采访Chris Odom的内容里分享，你可以在Let's Talk Bitcoin上观看Odom的访谈录。
与Mastercoin很像，Protoshares是一个可以让人兴奋的山寨币因为它提供了一种不仅仅是比特币区块链复制品的服务。Protoshares的理念是只有你拥有Protoshares你将同时获得Invictus Innovations创立的分散式自治社团的资助。他们第一个项目——Bitshares ，是基于解决去中心化平台创造之后出现的问题的。他们的解决方式与Mastercoin 协约相似。基本上，不同的资产，比如比特美元和比特黄金将从拥有Bitshares的双方得到他们的财富。你可以找到一个解释，BitAssets从talk论坛的bytemaster得到价值。Bytemaster（别名Daniel Larimer）是Invictus Innovations的CEO。一旦BitShares准备好了，Invictus会开始在DomainShares和一些其他的去中心化自治社团工作，这些社团就替代了一些我们现在每天用的中心化的网上服务。
你应该在上段介绍Protoshares的篇幅里多次看到“去中心化自治社团”这个概念。到底去中心化自治社团（decentralized autonomous corporation）或者说DAC是什么呢？一个去中心化自治社团基本上就是基于运用比特币区域链技术去创造一种去中心化的服务。例如，比特币在技术上就是有史以来第一个DAC。比特币不受中央权力机构控制，它的运行不需要有些人在公司办公室里决定什么样的决定。Namecoin是另外一个去中心化自治社团的例子，如果你关注它并了解它的概念，它变得更容易使用。Namecoin是一个去中心化的服务，它允许你注册一个比特币域名。他们提供的服务与电子邮件身份和其他网上身份相似。Namecoin基本上是一个允许你购买一个比特域名的商品。这个设置允许最原始的Namecoin开发者和接受者在他们的社团中收益。人们拥有Namecoin就有动机去宣传它，因为它会帮助Namecoin增加价值。如果没有这个收益的动机，在未来几年来我们可能会看到的许多去中心化的服务也许将不太可能出现。我们将马上看到一些不同的DACs出现，像Facebook、Twitter、Gmail、在线电子书、投票站、云储存等去中心化的服务一样。
Bitcoin 2.0 Explained: Colored Coins Vs Mastercoin Vs Open Transactions Vs Protoshares
While the entire world is beginning to learn about the power of the Bitcoin payment network， the real innovation behind this protocol is happening behind the scenes. There have been many different Bitcoin enthusiasts who have been talking about the holy grail of decentralized exchanges and using the Bitcoin protocol for more than just payments， and it seems that 2014 is going to be the year when we see these features finally get implemented into some real world applications. There are many different projects that are currently aiming to take Bitcoin to the next level， and it's likely that there won't be one clear winner when everything is said and done. Before we hop into the competition， let's take a closer look at exactly what these projects are trying to accomplish.
Most people who learned about Bitcoin for the first time in 2013 look at it as nothing more than a currency， but the reality is that it's much more than that. At its core， Bitcoin is a new technology that allows everyone around the world to come to a consensus on who owns what without the use of a centralized third party. There are many different applications that can be built on top of this technology， and Bitcoin is only the first of many apps to come. When you forget about Bitcoin and just look at the technology， there are a large number of new possibilities that jump out at you. For example， if you can have a decentralized ledger that explains who owns which asset， then why do we need centralized stock exchanges? If we can have a global consensus on who owns which domain name or email address， then why do we need centralized versions of these services? If it's possible to create a global marketplace where buyers and sellers can find each other in a decentralized manner， then why do we need to use eBay? These are just a few of the possibilities that people are looking at right now when it comes to taking the technology behind Bitcoin and applying it to more than just payments.
One of the first Bitcoin 2.0 platforms that was put into development was Colored Coins. They recently released the alpha version of their Chromawallet， and the developers behind this project expect to have a lighter version of the client released in a few weeks. So what will you be able to do with this specialized wallet? The main idea behind the Colored Coins project is that you will be able to apply secondary values to certain s on the Bitcoin blockchain. Those secondary values can then be used to create completely new digital currencies that are backed by real world assets. For example， let's say you own some gold at your house. You could hypothetically take 5 satoshis (0.00000005 BTC) and say that each one of those satoshis is equal to one gram of the gold that you hold in your home. You could then exchange those 5 satoshis backed by one gram of gold each on the decentralized exchange in the Chromawallet. This means that you could instantly exchange gold to bitcoins， dollars， euros， or any other user currency that is created in the Chromawallet. Another， and perhaps ever more exciting， example is creating stock in a company on the blockchain with Colored Coins. In this situation， you would take 1000 satoshis， or however many shares you want to create in your company， and say that those 1000 satoshis are now equal to one share of your new company. The Colored Coins project is a nice introduction to the kinds of features that will are going to see built on top of Bitcoin over the next few years.
Mastercoin is a project that is somewhat similar to Colored Coins， but they are attempting to reach their goals in a different manner. The Mastercoin project was created in August of 2013 as a way to kickstart many of the features that are expected to be included in the Colored Coins project. The first mastercoins were created when early funders sent their bitcoins to a particular Bitcoin address. Their bitcoins were basically then converted to mastercoins and sent back to them. Mastercoin is a new protocol layer built on top of Bitcoin， so mastercoins are basically just small amounts of bitcoins that have certain characteristics. Some of the other exciting features being developed by Mastercoin include a decentralized betting exchange and using contracts for differences to create currencies that don't need to rely on a third party for physical backing. One thing that needs to be pointed out about the Mastercoin protocol is the mastercoins on that layer also have their own value separate from bitcoins. This means that Mastercoin is also an alt coin. There are some interesting features that are being added to the Mastercoin protocol， such as the ability to mark certain mastercoins in a savings account where payments can be reversed if they are made without the address holder's permission. The only real problem with Mastercoin is that it is going to be competing with Bitcoin. Although it is often stated that Mastercoin and Bitcoin are not direct competitors， the reality is that users will have to convert some of their bitcoins to mastercoins if they are going to be able to take advantage of many features of the Mastercoin protocol. If many of the features implemented on the Mastercoin protocol layer are also implemented directly on top of Bitcoin， then there really won't be any reason for people to switch from bitcoins over to mastercoins. There will actually still be an incentive to stick with Bitcoin if there are not major advantages of Mastercoin over Bitcoin because the price of bitcoins will likely be less volatile. The entire value of all the bitcoins in the world is currently hovering around $10 billion， while the value of all the mastercoins has dropped below $100 million. Liquidity is a huge factor when it comes to the viability of a currency， so it will be interesting to see if the advanced features of Mastercoin allow it to overcome the liquidity advantage of Bitcoin. Either way， the world is likely to benefit from the advanced features that are currently being implemented in the Mastercoin protocol. Mastercoin， much like Bitcoin， is a technology that is difficult to understand at first. The good news is that there a number of different videos on YouTube where Mastercoin Executive Director Ron Gross explains most of the important features of the protocol in various interviews and presentations from over the past few months.
Open Transactions is a project that has been in development since before Bitcoin became a big deal. The lead developer behind the project， Chris Odom aka FellowTraveler， originally thought of the main idea behind Open Transactions with gold-backed digital currencies in mind. Once Bitcoin came along， it only made sense to integrate into OT. One of the main aims of the Open Transactions project is to decentralize the entire financial landscape by allowing anyone to issue currencies and various financial assets that are secured with cryptography. Anyone will be able to create digital tokens that represent real value on Open Transactions， but one of the most innovative features of this system is that the people who issue the digital tokens will not be able to alter the ledger for their currency or stock. For example， PayPal can technically go into their servers and change your account balance from $11，873.33 to $4，902.34 if they felt compelled to do that. This kind of action is impossible with assets issued through Open Transactions because of the way that the transactions are handled and signed. Of course， there is still the problem of having to trust that a third party who is backing their currency by gold， silver， dollars， or any other asset actually has the asset in a vault somewhere. The good news is that a solution for this problem has recently been found. In addition to issuing a currency， an issuer can also store collateral for the users of his or her currency in the form of bitcoins. For example， if there was a currency that was backed by one ounce of gold， then the issuer of that currency could send an ounce of gold's worth of bitcoins into an escrow account and agree to distribute those bitcoins to the holders of that particular currency in a situation where there is a run on the bank. For more information on Open Transactions， I recommend this interview with Chris Odom and this panel on decentralized exchanges. You can also watch Odom's interview on Let's Talk Bitcoin where he talks about integrating Bitmessage into Open Transactions for transactions between different servers.
Much like Mastercoin， Protoshares is an altcoin that actually gets people excited because it offers something different than a simple clone of the Bitcoin blockchain. The idea behind Protoshares is that anyone who owns Protoshares will also get a stake in the decentralized autonomous corporations that are created by Invictus Innovations. Their first project， Bitshares， is basically their way of going after the problem of creating a decentralized exchange. Their solution is similar to the contracts for differences idea that Mastercoin is also implementing. Basically， various assets， such as BitUSD and BitGold will derive their value from two parties who own Bitshares and place long and short positions on that particular asset. You can find an explanation as to where BitAssets will get their value from bytemaster on the bitcointalk forum. Bytemaster， aka Daniel Larimer， is the CEO of Invictus Innovations. After BitShares is ready， Invictus will then begin to work on DomainShares and a number of other decentralized autonomous corporations that can replace some of the centralized online services that we use today.
You may have noticed the term decentralized autonomous corporation being thrown around a few times in the section on Protoshares. What exactly is a decentralized autonomous corporation or DAC? A DAC is basically a way to use the blockchain technology behind Bitcoin to created a decentralized service. For example， Bitcoin is technically the first DAC ever created. There is no central authority that controls Bitcoin， and it keeps running without the need for some guys in a corporate office decide on what kinds of moves Bitcoin needs to make as a company. Namecoin is another example of a decentralized autonomous corporation， and it becomes much easier to understand this concept when you take a look at this altcoin. Namecoin is a decentralized service that allows you to register a .bit domain. They are also working on similar services for email and online identities. Namecoins are basically a commodity that allow you to purchase a .bit domain. This setup allows the original developers and early adopters of Namecoin to profit from their work. People who own namecoins also have an incentive to promote and build on top of Namecoin because it will help their namecoins increase in value. Without the profit motive， many of the decentralized services that we are going to see pop up in the coming years may not have been possible or viable over the long term. We will soon see many different DACs come about that will offer decentralized alternatives to services such as Facebook， Twitter， Gmail， online sportsbooks， voting booths， SSL， cloud storage， and much more.
At the end of the day， the reality is that all of these Bitcoin 2.0 technologies are not really competing against each other. Open Transactions will allow people to trade protoshares， mastercoins， bitcoins， and everything else on their servers. Perhaps you will even be able to trade a protoshares-backed currency on top of Mastercoin for BitMastercoins one day. Humanity wins with the creation of all these new decentralized services and technologies， and we can all thank Satoshi Nakamoto for his， her， or their creation of the blockchain technology. In a few years， we could be talking about a situation where the entire Internet has been replaced with services that use the blockchain technology as the foundation of their development.
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